Wednesday, 30 November 2011

RS - Further influences from film and other music videos

The Breakfast Club (1985, John Hughes). This opening sequence is very useful to us due to the location the film is set in. It gives us a better understanding of how we would set up the shots.

Unfortunatley this clip has been mirrored so that it wouldn't be removed from Youtube however it's only the titles that are an issue to read.

Here are a few examples of music videos using high school locations within their videos. Most of these music videos are within our genre so it shows that the genre uses this location often and that it creates a good music video.

Nirvana - Smells Like Teen Spirit

Pearl Jam - Jeremy

Aerosmith - Livin' On The Edge

Pink Floyd - Another Brick in the Wall

Van Halen - Hot For Teacher

Escape the Fate - Situations (An obvious reference to Hot For Teacher but with a twist!)

Escape The Fate - Situations from Brad Radke on Vimeo.

WS - Sample Footage 2 and our Second Vodcast

As school was closed yesterday, we thought it would be a good opportunity to attempt some more sample footage and take advantage of this by also making our new Vodcast in a different setting to where we normally would.

Due to changes in our idea following our first edition of sample footage, we needed more footage to reflect what we now want to include. Sample Footage One showed the main character been bullied around Ilkley (the town where some of our video will be filmed). This is still part of our idea, although we are going to try and represent the character as isolated and rejected by a number of people rather than just a couple of people bullying him. This isolation extends to his family and his home-life, which is where this second edition of sample footage comes in.

We filmed the footage at Rob's house and this is a planned setting for part of our music video. The shots we have taken were supposed to make the character look isolated and alone, but with a real love for Muse and their music. We attempted this through the mise-en-scene, but also through the framing of shots. Posters, magazines and DVD's make up most of how we are trying to portray the character as a 'Muse nerd', but the framing of the shot and positioning of everything within the shot is vital to making him look like a 'loner'.

We filmed quite a large range of shots yesterday which has allowed us quite a lot of freedom when editing the sample footage to 'play about' with it and try and find things that may work for the actual music video. An example of this is showing the character selecting our chosen song on the iPod and turning the volume up to full. This is when we plan to introduce the song to the video. The whole idea for this came about while we were filming which emphasises the importance of practice filming and sample footage.

In total we recorded around twenty-five minutes of sample footage, the majority of which will probably not be used but we felt it is always good to experiment with footage. We will have to await feedback to see what fellow students (people who will be within our primary target audience) think and see what improvements they can suggest.

As well as sample footage, we felt it seemed like a good time to make a vodcast. We decided to do this to keep the Vodcasts different, and the fact that we could film it in a setting where the music video will take place seemed like a good idea.

The Sample footage and the second vodcast will be evidenced on our blogs when we have finished editing them.

Monday, 28 November 2011

RS - Inspiration from Film + Other Music Videos

Today as a group we all looked at the film opening for Trick or Treat (1986, Charles Martin Smith) and we found it very useful as it is very similar to our idea with the main character being seen as distant from the other students at school. We won't use all of the aspects within the Trick or Treat opening such as the nudity and some of the other shots however we do want a similar effect showing the protagonist distant from the others and not fitting in because of him liking a certain band similar to this. We want to use a similar panning technique they use in the bedroom scene where it is moving across all the different bands posters/accessories as it works really well and is achieveable by us. It's like a short montage which we could take inspiration from.

The sequence at the start with the protagonist in his bedroom is useful because of the use of mise en scene within the room. From the music posters to the calendars and even the books on the shelves have references to bands and show what his hobbies/interests are. We want to do a similar thing in our music video so using this as a reference is helpful. 

Here is the entire opening sequence to the film

We also took inspiration from certain music videos including
We only want to use certain aspects from within these music videos so we wont go to the extreams of creating a werewolf etc however we do want to have similar shots like in these videos within our video. We are only taking inspiration from them not copying them.

Sunday, 27 November 2011

RS - Bliss - first + latest live performance

Muse's first performance of Bliss was at the Bizarre Festival on the 18th of August 2000. The song had not been released yet and the lyrics are not the same as the studio recorded version. This version of the song is quite different to the album version as it contains a very "16-bit" inspired synth in it.

Here are the lyrics that are sung for this early version:

Everything about you pains my envying 
Your soul can't hate anything 
Everything about you resonates happiness 
Now I won't settle for less 

Peace and joy in your mind 
I want the peace and joy in your mind 
Give me peace and joy in your mind 
I want the peace and the joy in your mind 

Everything about you is what I wanna be 
Your freedom comes naturally 
Everything about you is so easy to love
Now I won't settle for less 

Peace and joy in your mind 
I want the peace and the joy in your mind
Give me peace and joy in your mind 
I want the peace and joy in your mind 

Peace and joy in your mind 
Peace and joy in your mind 
Peace ... ooh.

Here is the most recent performance of Bliss (extended version) at this years Reading Festival on the 28th of August 2011. This version contains the now very famous "Matt Bellamy falsetto" at the start of the final chorus, Bellamy does not do this on the album version however since around 2003 he has added it to the song. There is even a fan made video showing "the best of Matt Bellamy's Bliss Falsetto".

RS - A brief history of Music Video

The 1980s saw music videos become a more popualar form of media after the release of the channel MTV. The first music video MTV broadcasted was "Video Killed the Radio Star" by The Buggles. Although this was not the first station to show music videos the first one was BBC. The long-running British TV show Top of the Pops began playing music videos in the late 1970s, this meant a good video would increase a song's sales as viewers hoped to see it again the following week.

Music videos have been previously know as talkies, Screen Songs, Promotional clips and Musical films. Although modern music videos are primarily made and used as a marketing device intended to promote the sale of the accompanying single and album.

During the 2000s lo-fi videos started being made. Lo-fi is made with minimal budgets and not much shot variation, such as Yellow by Coldplay. The most common lo-fi music video is called a one-shot where the entire video is one shot. The reason for these types of music video becoming what it is known for today was due to the shift towards internet broadcasting and a rise in popularity for user-generated video sites with YouTube being the leader in the market. 

Youtube is now the main way people watch music videos now due to it's ease of use and the ability to be able to watch any video you want and however many times you want without a video you hate being on. Some music videos have over half a billion views (Justin Bieber's "Baby"with 666 million views today, we all knew he was the devil!).

RS - Track/Artist Record Label

Origin of Symmetry along with two other Muse albums was released by "Taste Media". Taste Media is a very small indie record label formed in Cornwall. Muse only stayed with them because they were also small and unknown at the time and could not get a deal with one of the big 4. However when Absolution (2003) was released by Taste Media and Muse started to get more into the mainstream scene they departed with Taste Media and formed their own record label named Helium 3 which is now a subdivision of Warner Music Group (one of the big 4 record labels). Muse are still releasing content from the Helium 3 record label.

US music market shares (2005)

Thursday, 24 November 2011

ALL - Podcast Number Three - The New Idea, Sample Footage + Issues uploading the Sample Footage

RS - School Closure

On Friday (25th) the school will be closed for Review Day. Our Media Teacher will be in during that time so it is possible to come in during the day and catch up with work over that period. 

Next Monday (28th) school will be closed again due to Jubilee Day however school will be completely closed so there will be no opportunity to work in school at all.

And finally next Wednesday (30th) the school will be closed due to the teachers going on strike which means the entire school will be closed so once again we will not be able to get into school to do work.

On all of these days we (Swillob Productions) expect to do relevant blogging on all of these days as well as catching up on a Vodcast on Monday as well as more sample footage which will then be screened to the class for further feedback. We have also booked out "Trick or Treat" (1986, Charles Smith) to look at the opening sequence for inspiration for our coursework idea and "U2-18videos" to do research on directors in music videos.

Tuesday, 22 November 2011

ALL - Sample Footage

We recorded a sample version of a scene which will be featured in our music video for our media coursework. Unfortunatley most of the footage was unusable due to the Macs at school not reading the footage properly and causing huge pauses. However with it only being sample footage we gathered all we could and assembled it together to end up with this. We did not need the actual cast/props/clothing for this task because it was just to give a sense of what will be expected to happen in the video.

WS - Lyrics and Timings

Lyrics Timings

Monday, 21 November 2011

SP - The New Idea

After our re-pitch on Friday we have gained some vital feedback from not only our Media teacher but also our class mates. We have decided that our original idea will be quite difficult to film and to act in. We would need to use some very experienced actors/actresses to make our music video look to a good standard. Otherwise, as we had planned to, when we were to act in it we might of made it look quite unproffesional. This meant we had to change our idea in some way or another to make sure we knew exactly how we could film it and that we could actually act in it.

After we had gained this information we asked our class mates how we could change our idea, not drastically, to make it better. Here our the ideas that our Media teacher, our class mates and ourselves came up with:

  1. The main change to our idea is that the focus will be on a 'Muse nerd' who is being bullied by a social group. This 'nerd' will not be trying to get in to this social group like our original idea but he will be getting grief from a very popular group of three instead. 
  2. Another advantage from our feedback is that we now have an idea for our ending to the music video. Having all watched some coursework music videos from lasy year, our class mates recommended we took inspiration from the 'Joy Division' video by Colborne Joel,Moreman Callum and Jonny Hughes. Their ending involved their main character contemplating suicide and this sort of idea would definately woek for our music video aswell. 
  3. The good thing is that we will be able to use all of the same locations as our original idea but just flip the idea so the 'Muse nerd' will be getting bullied instead of him trying to become one of the group members. This means we will still be filming all of our music video in an around Ilkley.
  4. We will still be using the same band 'Ice Cream For Activists' for our performance footage and the props and target audience will all be the same as our original idea.
  5. Our initial idea hasn't actually changed that much it is just a simple change to the narrative that means it will be much easier for us to film and allows us to act in it aswell. 

Saturday, 19 November 2011

ALL - Codes and Conventions of a Magazine Advert

Magazine adverts are placed in media related products, normally music magazines including Q and Kerrang. These adverts gain awareness of a new album, single, digipak, special edition disc, or several tour dates, etc
The main Common Code and Conventions are:
  • Artists Name (in large font)
  • Album Name (usually the same size font as the artist name)
  • Album Cover
  • Bold writing
  • Web Address of artist, record labels and ticket retailer
  • Colours compliment each other
  • Twitter, Facebook and Youtube pages
  • Tour dates (if any)
  • Record Labels
  • Says the format it is available in - CD and download
  • Font Variation, framing and colour
  • Theme of the artist - fits with the lyrics and albums
  • Information about the album (usually says "Including" followed by the singles released from the album)
  • QR Codes
  • Introductory sentence to grab the audience's attention 'the wait is finally over...'
  • Thumbnails
  • Photo of the CD/Product/Merchandise
  • Format (CD, CD + DVD, CD + Vinyl or Digital)
  • Either release date, out now or pre-order
Other conventions we found as a group
  • Album artwork is included in the advert (all)
  • Says 'new album' on the ad (3/6)
  • Tour dates (2/6)
  • Release date (all)
  • Social media links - twitter/ facebook (no longer myspace for newer releases)
  • Tickets website (2/6)
  • Artist website (all)
  • Artist name positioned top, central on the page (5/6)
  • Tour sponsor advert and website (1/6)
  • Phone number for ticket (1/6)
  • Name of hit single included in the album (2/6)
  • Image of the band (3/6)
  • Thumbnails of the album (1/6)
Other ideas
  • Label it as limited addition to increase sales
  • image of digipak spread out

RS - Facebook and Twitter

I created a Facebook fan page for Swillob Productions which will contain all the recent updates on the coursework as well as any feedback needed. We can also arrange events for filming which will be published on the fan page so everyone will know what time to meet and when! You can see the fan page here.

I also created a Twitter page for very much the same reason as the Facebook page. I have linked both of the accounts together so everything should be posted on both for both social networking sites. You can follow Swillob Productions here.

RS - Directors going against Genre Conventions

A perfect example for bands going against their typical codes and conventions would be the recently released video for Mein Land by Industrial Metal band Rammstein. The video was directed by Jonas Åkerlund who also directed the very controvesial video for P*ssy (be warned, it's very explicit!) by Rammstein. He has also worked with artist such as Lady Gaga and Christina Aguilera showing that he has a wide understanding of different genres of music. Akerlund is known for making mock forms of movie trailers or films which can be seen in the Mein Land music video.

Rammstein are known for using huge flames live and causing fans to go home from heat exhaustion, as well as having very explicit/controversial and daring videos. Despite all this they went ahead with having a video based on a 1960's Tv show. They are wearing 60's beach attire along with cheesy "surfing" shots all the way to having 60's instruments worn very high as an intertexual reference to The Beatles. They use beach-boy type titles on the screen for some of the lyrics along with the song title, band, director etc. However in the last quarter of the music video the conventions all switch and they go back to their over the top performances with all their instruments on fire, topless women and scary contact lenses!

Its all very different to their usual videos however it is a perfect example of showing that you don't have to follow the typical codes and conventions. One of Industrial Metals biggest acts ever has done it and they made it work meaning even we could do the same with our genre.

Here is a typical Rammstein music video with multiple explosions/flames to show off what their live perfomances are like:

Here is the music video for Mein Land. Be warned this video contains some brief nudity!

Friday, 18 November 2011

SP - Directors in Music Video

Chris Cunningham:
Chris Cunningham made his directorial debut in 1997 with the music video for "Come to Daddy" by Aphex Twin, which was instantly praised, banned, and raved about by many people in the business. He followed up by making the music video for "Windowlicker" by Aphex Twin, and the astounding "All is Full of Love" video by Björk. Recently, he made his short-film debut, "Flex,". His incredible style alone makes him a director to watch out for in later years.


Michel Gondry:
He grew up in Versailles with a family who was very influenced by pop music. When he was young, Gondry wanted to be a painter or an inventor. In the 80s he entered in an art school in Paris where he could develop his graphic skills and where he also met friends with whom he created a pop-rock band called Oui-Oui. The band released 2 albums ('Chacun tout le monde' and 'Formidable') and several singles until their separation in 1992. Gondry was the drummer of the band and also directed their video clips in which it was possible to see his strange world, influenced by the 60s and by his childhood. One of his videos was shown on MTV and when Björk saw it, she asked him to make her first solo video for 'Human Behaviour'. The partnership is famous: Gondry directed five other Björk's videos, benefiting by the huge budgets. This led to commissions for other artists around the world, including Massive Attack. He also made a lot of commercials for Gap, Smirnoff, Air France, Nike, Coca Cola, Adidas, Polaroid and Levi - the latter making him the most highly-awarded director for a one-off commercial. Hollywood became interested in Gondry's success and he directed his first feature movie Human Nature (2001), adapting a Charlie Kaufman's scenario, which was shown in the 2001 Cannes Festival. Although it wasn't a big success, this film allowed him to direct Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind (2004), for which he again collaborated with Charlie Kaufman. The movie became a popular independent film and he and his co-writers won an Oscar for it.  


Spike Jonze:
Spike Jonze made up one-third (along with Andy Jenkins and Mark Lewman) of the triumvirate of genius minds behind Dirt Magazine, the brother publication of the much lamented ground-breaking Sassy Magazine. These three uncommon characters were all editors for Grand Royal Magazine as well, under the direction of Mike D and Adam Horovitz and Adam Yauch before the sad demise of Grand Royal Records. Jonze was also responsible for directing the famous Beastie Boys: Sabotage (1994) (V) short film as well as numerous other music videos for various artists.

Anton Corbijn:
Anton Corbijn (born 20 May 1955) is a Dutch photographer, music video and film director. He is the creative director behind the visual output of Depeche Mode and U2, having handled the principal promotion and sleeve photography for both for more than a decade. Some of his works include music videos for Depeche Mode's "Enjoy the Silence" (1990) and Nirvana's "Heart-Shaped Box" (1993), as well as the Ian Curtis biopic Control, George Clooney's The American and theA Most Wanted Man based on John le Carré's 2008 novel of the same name. 

Mark Romanek:
Mark Romanek (born September 18, 1959) is an American filmmaker, whose directing work includes feature films, music videos and commercials. He wrote and directed the critically acclaimed 2002 filmOne Hour Photo starring Robin Williams. His most notable music videos include "Hurt" (Johnny Cash), "Closer" (Nine Inch Nails), "Criminal" (Fiona Apple), and "Scream" (Michael & Janet Jackson). His music videos have garnered 19 MTV Video Music Awards, including Best Direction for Jay-Z's "99 Problems" in 2004. He has also won three Grammy Awards for Best Short Form Music Video - more than any other director.

Wednesday, 16 November 2011

RS + SP - Treatment

Treatment – Swillob Productions

Tuesday, 15 November 2011

ALL - Digipaks

Digipaks typically consist of a gatefold (book-style) paperboard or card stock outer binding, with one or more plastic trays capable of holding a CD or DVD attached to the inside. Since Digipaks were among the first alternatives to jewel cases to be used by major record companies, and because there is no other common name for Digipak-style packaging made by other companies, the term digipak or Digi-Pak is often used generically, even when the media holder is a hub or "Soft Spot" rather than a full plastic tray.

Source - Wikipedia

Codes and Conventions of a digipak:
  • Front with the album artwork accompanied with the artist name and the album title
  • Back cover typically with the tracklist including time of the songs. The back cover also typically contains:
  • Bar Code
  • QR code (becoming more common)
  • Smallprint with copyright laws written
  • Website for the artist
  • Twitter/Facebook sites (becoming more common)
  • Usually the bands record label logo can be seen
  • Inside the digipak there is sometimes text displaying the names of the composers for each song in smaller print than the song title
  • There is sometimes a small handout which contains further artwork, maybe some images of the artist playing live or possibly lyrics
  • The actual CD can usually be found in the main part of the digipak in a plastic holder with two panels to each side
  • Some digipaks have two cd's within the card case. One for the actual CD and another for behind the scenes or some sort of DVD
  • Stickers are usually found on the front of the digipak saying "includes "...." in this album!"
  • The outside of the digipak can use very bright and inviting colours to make it attractive on the shelve and then use darker colours inside the actual digipak.
  • Digipaks are seen as the LP's of this century and can be seen as a collectable like LP's as they are much more interesting than a standard jewel case. 
  • The spine of the digipak usually has the artist name, album name
Advantages of a digipak rather  than a standard Dual Case
  • You can recycle the material used to make the digipak  as it is cardboard not plastic
  • A digipak is cheaper to produce, making the distribution cost cheaper.
  • A digipak is a more up to date version of an LP which is basically a 12'' square cardboard, showing a resemblance to a digipak. 
  • They cannot crack like Dual cases can, however they could rip or eventually over time fall apart.

From research online I found a wide range of bands using digipaks in our genre showing that there is a market for them. 

However most notably Muse's most recent album "The Resistance" had three versions of the album for sale. 

The standard one was just a CD.

then for slightly more there was a CD+DVD 

Then finally there was a "deluxe edition" for a high cost which contained:
- CD+DVD in foldout softpak including The Making Of The Resistance DVD (43 minutes 53 seconds)
- 180g Double heavyweight vinyl
- Muse USB pre-loaded with WAV, Apple Lossless and MP3 320 files plus bespoke audio player
- 12" Art Print

This shows that there is a clear audience that is interested in buying the high budget collectables.
The Resistance - Deluxe Edition

Thursday, 10 November 2011

WS & SP - The Genre of Muse

Before we can start to really plan our idea, we need to get a very good understanding of the genre and sub-genres for both Muse, and our chosen song in particular.

The main genre that Muse come under is Alternative Rock. We feel we need to get an understanding of this genre, in addition to looking at New Prog and Space Rock, the two genres that "Bliss" comes under. 

Alternative Rock
Alternative Rock is a sub-genre of Rock and can also be known as 'Alternative music','Alt Rock' or 'Alternative'.
"At times, "alternative" has been used as a catch-all description for music from underground rock artists that receives mainstream recognition, or for any music, whether rock or not. Alternative rock is a broad umbrella term consisting of music that differs greatly in terms of its sound, its social context and its regional roots." [Wikipedia]
Typical and common instruments used in Alternative Rock include: 

  • Electric Guitar
  • Bass Guitar
  • Drums
  • Key Board
Here is a quote from a blog we have found on Google:
"In alt-rock videos there is usually a narrative within the video that either tells a story that follows the lyrics of the song or the story will completely ignore the lyrics and be something random or something that still holds a meaning behind them but not necessarily what the lyrics have to say. As well as the narrative there is also a live a performance of the song by the band lip syncing and playing their instruments. The videos always have many cuts between the actual performance of the song to the narrative which usually stars the band as either portraying themselves or fictional characters."
As well as the above quote, we have also found an excellent 'Prezi' on the Alt. Rock genre and what the conventions are for this kind of music video.

We have now looked into the Alternative Rock genre, but there are also more specific genres for our actual song that we need to look into.

Space Rock
"Space rock is a subgenre of rock music; the term originally referred to a group of early, mostly British, 1970s progressive and psychedelic rock bands such as Hawkwind and Pink Floyd, characterised by slow, lengthy instrumental passages dominated by electric organssynthesizers, experimental guitar work and science fiction or astronomical lyrical themes, though it was later repurposed to refer to a series of late 1980s British alternative rock bands that drew from earlier influences to create a more ambient but still melodic form of pop music." [Wikipedia]
Space Rock is one of the genres of the song 'Bliss'. As the above quote states it is a sub-genre of Rock Music. In addition to the quote from Wikipedia, I have also found the below quote:
"Space rock is largely an extension of psychedelic rock (and/or krautrock) and shares many of its similar mind-altering and atmospheric features. Its main features include the recreation of atmospheres that correspond to images of both outer and inner space. Some of the modern groups in this style also incorporate influences of reggae/dub." [The Guide to the Progressive Rock Genres]
These two quotes provide us with a clear view of what this genre is and where it comes from. Due to the references with space and astronomy aspects discussed in the first quote, it is clear why this particular video fits into the genre.

New Prog
 "New prog (also known as Nu prog, Post-prog or Post-progressive) is a term used to describe a number of recent alternative rock/experimental bands who incorporate elements from progressive rock. "New prog" has connections and overlaps with the post-rock movement, whilst frequently diverging with the indie scene." [Wikipedia]

The above quote is taken from Wikipedia. The reason this is interesting is that on there is a list of notable bands who have music associated with the genre. Muse are included in that list along with the likes of 'Radiohead' and '30 Seconds To Mars'  

A useful website with a large amount of information on Prog Rock can be found here. The site includes definitions, musical and other characteristics.

Common instruments in the genre include:

  • Guitar
  • Bass
  • Keyboard
  • Piano
  • Drums

Sunday, 6 November 2011

SP - Codes and Conventions of Music Videos

Music videos contain different storylines and meanings, which are portrayed through various ways:

Goodwin's Theory:
Performance - Where the band or the music artist is playing the song throughout the video.
Narrative - Where the song involves a narrative and so, the words and meaning of the song is acted out in some way. 
Concept - Where a music video is based on a single, random idea or concept
However you can have some different ways of approaching a music video:
Mixture - Where there is the musician playing as well as a narrative storyline occurring and the camera cross cuts to each scene. 
Animation - Some music videos involve animation that is edited in, this creates creativity and entertainment to the video

Camera: Depending on what the style of the music video is, depends on the type of camera angles that are used, such as:

Crane shots - These are used especially when there is a usage of stages and where the musicians is performing. The crane shots are able to hover around the stage from many different angles to capture what is happening.
Pans/tilts - These are to move to each performer and can also be used to show the location as it pans around which is very effective.
Close ups - They focus on the musicians as their mouths move to the lyrics as well as when there is a narrative and there are close ups on the characters to show their emotions, which suit what the song is about. There are usually close ups on instruments and certain, significant props.
Tracking shots - These are used to track the band members if they move whilst playing their instrumets.

Editing and Sound: The editing process in music videos takes a lot of time and is a crucial part of music videos. ThIS is because, the shots and need to be selected. The lip synching definitely needs to be edited so that the musicians look as though they are actually singing the song at the exact same time as the music playing. Some editing techniques include:

Jump cutting
Footage used is edited to match what is said in the lyrics of the music, as part as parallel editing.
Split screens
CGI effects-many music videos use effects to show impossible outcomes such as superhero moves and flying.
Choosing to include diegetic sound-at the beginning and ending of some music videos, there are scenes without any music to explain what is going on and to start or finish the narrative.
Changes in the levels of sounds- in certain areas of the song, the music level changes for effect, narrative reasons or to suit what is going on.

Mise-en-scene: Mise en scene is important in music videos as it includes:

Props - All music videos contain props depending on the genre and type of song it is, such as, if it is a performance style video, there would be performance equipment, instruments, and stages and lighting.
Costume - This also depends on the lyrics of the song as well as the genre. Certain performers will have different outfits suiting what they are representing in the video.
Location - The setting for music videos basically sets the scene immediately and many settings used are simple settings where many people can relate to.

Mise en scene in different genres: Many music videos have certain elements that make them have various vibes to represent the view of the music tribes, such as:

Hip hop music videos use quite dark colours, simple settings and there are portrayals of women to show their sexuality, which appeals to males. On the other hand, the majority of hip hop music artists are males and so, females are the fans.
Pop music videos feature the usage of many bright colours, flashing lights and creative settings and backdrops. The colours would appeal to mainly younger audiences as many pop artists are young and express themselves through the lyrics of pop music, as well as their costumes that make the musicians look innocent and relatable.
Rock music videos have dark colours throughout and use simple settings. Many videos contain the use of music equipment such as drums and guitars, which is why many rock musicians do performances in their videos. There is a lot of emotion in the videos through the characters and musicians facial expressions, and normally they do not portray happiness in the music videos as they relate the lyrics and meaning of the song to the storyline and emotions.

R'N'B music videos are similar to hip hop videos as they contain simple settings and many show women dressed in revealing clothes. Also, these videos have an element to portray wealth and power through the use of cars and jewellery due to the costume and setting.
Jazz music videos contain bright lights and are often of performances on huge stages. Costumes include suits for the men and sophisticated dresses for women as well as classy hairstyles and bright make up, with the use of old fashioned microphones. The overall view of these videos are to portray sophistication and elegance. 

Others codes and conventions include:

1. Alot of cut shots and not too many transitions between shots
2. Very fast paced editing
3. Short takes
4. Male / female gaze
5. Lip syncing
6. Backing dancers